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By Hon, VALENTINE WINKLER, Minbier of A„icult»r^ "" 

Perennial Sow Thistle 'S'oin-lius ,tr:\'iis:s i. 


''"''''- "'>-""l'"rilJ- of Il„„ V..I..M,M,. Wn.kl,.,, M,ni.„.,-of \.,i.„|,u,. 


e as a 

Weed Eradicator 

This circular jjives the tentative results of the experience of farm- 
ers in the Morden-Khineland District in keepin|i>: down noxious weedN 
by KrowinK Fall Rye and Spring Rye. These grains have been Krown in 
that District for over five years. Their cultivation was undertaken in 
the first instance for the money value of the rye crop, but owinj; to the 
additional value of these >;rains as a means of eradicating: weeds their 
cultivation has been extended till a substantial area is now sown. 


This should be sown from August ir>ch to September 15th. as snini 
as the previous crop is harvested. The ground should be plowed Jirul 
harrowed and the rye seeded at the rate of about I'-j bushels to Wv 
acre. It ripens about the last week in July and is cut with the binder, 
stocked, and threshed in the same way as wheat. The yield runs from 
15 to 25 bushels per acre. On jjfood clean ground it yields more, but it i> 
ordinarily sown on the weediest ground the farmer has. 

It makes a strong stand in the fall, which helps to hold the .snow. 
Thus far it has not winter-killed. When sown early the weeds grow up 
w'lth it and the tender varieties of weeds are killed by the frost. The 
rye grows rapidly, leafs freely and ordinarily outstrips the weeds and 
tends to crowd them out and weakens the growth of perennial weeds. 
When the frost comes the rye forms a carpet on the ground, which 
further tends to smother the weeds. It starts early in the spring, grow,* 
rapidly, and shades any weeds that grow up — such, for example, s 
Wild Oats, Sow Thistles and Canadian Thistles — and thus tends *■■ 
prevent them blossoming. Few of the weeds that do blossom are i; 
enough advanced when the rye is cut to mature their seeds. 

While the above is the normal mode of culture there are sevtra! 
variations — 

(a) The rye may be pastured in the fall when it has a fair growth, 
say after it has boen sown six weeks. 

(b) It may be pastured in the spring till about May 20th. 

(c) Or it may be cut for hay early in July, after the head is well 

Light pasturing does not appear to affect greatly the yield of 
either grain or hay ; but heavy pasturing lessens the yield of both and 
affects the quality o. the grain, the kernel not being so plump. 

Fall rye is sometimes sown on very weedy summer-fallow as an 
additional measure for cleaning up the ground. 

I SI»RIN(; u 

When t.<. of hay an 'L^t ':';.;;' ^^^ n.;^! '[Irill^l^'^r^./l.^^^^-t. 

o. 'vS'J" ^!"^p;:;^;:'i!;:;:'';;;;j',^!^ r'-' that the cultivation 

H-aciication of noxi.nJ woe, * T J'^' .hI; ::?^ ;"imirahl.v ,„ the 

vvhich it has heen cultivaterisdth :;,..*': ','"\?'''''-^ ''"^ 
ea.h year. Some farmers are still Kr.," nj^ t w i ;':' *'^'' •'^"^■" 
cn.p while others are trrowinir it 1, t tv.. ; "' '"''•.' ^■'''"^" «« " 

'i"stroyinjr noxious weeds '" '^" '•'""•■>■ ^•''»*' "•"! f'^r 

;--acre Plot. seedJ^f w!;i;i^;i,;S ' J Sh u-S'^"'"'"^ ^ 
tive method of eradicatinR noviou-. weecis • ,, n,. ' *- • " ^""«true- 
» 'i-op of either jrrain or IVxldor. "'^ ^*'' '""'*' ^'"^'^ Krowin^ 

thri^5nXKn.^ir;Xes"LT''f' n^'"''^ where water lies. It 
..• theyear4reSpi?S!rir£:Sl in .l^i'^S^^ "''""^^ ^^« -h"'« 

cattle or pigs It is s'l d tS f . " admirable lation for horses. 

that it shou d not b^ feci to h . 0.1/?^ '" '• ^*" '^'''''^''^ ^''Jf"* «"' 

1 . 


per ^:^:?'Si^z:'i^?y^^tr^z;a^ ^'^ I'l' ^-n - ^^ -"ts 

carload is grown tributary to an elJvatm'' ^'""^'^ '''' '^ ^'^^''^^'^r ^ 

is ciparS^r hS^S^^S^'nilTt^'f ' ^^ satisfactory. Rye straw 
for fodder. It i^, however eaten f^PhK^'' f ' ,''''l"'*^^*^ "'' ^^^eat straw 
fed apart from othe. Sv-f; t '' '"•'' ■'^t«''l^ : but as it has not been 

'lata 0? its Se as': foSder. " ""' ^'"'^ ""'^"^ '""''^ '^ "«t suffioien? 

be nSL"ne^'L^'j^i;rMS;'^75^2%T%?T'"f'.^'^«"^ «^hers. may 
John Oddv (21-1 r.) lu^fi] i'^ i}' (»erhard Braun (19-;j-4) and 

^uu have grJw^'iye extenS'?^^^^^^ ^^^''''- ^'^^^^•^- McKay and 
handsome c?op of both faH rS nnH'"""- ^'^^''' ^^"^' ^^'*- Oddy has a 
-a.e in ./this sSnfnVe^^isStTs^Sfin^ffe^?;^^^^^^^^^ 


> . , 

Full rv fc.r M-vi\ nin hv ..l.taiiu-.l in the Monlfii-Khineland Distri. • 
al«o sprink rye in limiU-.l (,uantities^ A fiiir l'''";^; ';*J. ';;!'';i^'':;, , 1 
$1.00 per bushel, in.ludimr .^arks. 'I hat is to say. .$l...0(> tor six sa> „> 
of 2'/a bushels each, whuli would seed lU acres. 


Those vvishiriK to buy -r sell Fall Kye for seed should write tiu. 
irtment at and li-ts ..f names of sellers or buyers will be >.Mt 

'he n alts set out in this circular are tentative and subject .1 
c-nauKe. beinK based on limite.l data. Reports to the Department as .0 
resul s by growers will be Kla.lly received In all correspondence t 
should be clearly indicated wheth.r it is Fall rye or Sp.-injr rye that i> 


referred to. 


Minister of Ajfricultuie.